Traditionally, preoperative diagnosis in implantology was based on two-dimensional (2D) interpretation of radiographic information, obtained basically from panoramic and/or periapical radiographs. In the 1990s, evolution in this field led to more generalized use of computerized tomography (CT), together with the elaboration of radiographic and surgical templates. However, despite the availability of CT technology, during these early stages clinicians would only receive 2D information and had to go through a mental process of "limited three-dimensionalization" in order to approach realistic surgical readiness and to adequately plan the placement of fixtures, which carried significant limitations.
This need for more elaborate and trustworthy 3D information led to the design, at the turn of the century, of specific implant design programs based on 3D handling of information obtained by CT or cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT), created the new concept of computer-aided implant surgery (CAIS).
The following topics will be assessed:
5.2 What types of CAIS procedures are available for clinical use?
5.2.1 Template-based or static procedures
5.2.2 Navigation system or dynamic procedures
5.3 How reliable are CAIS systems?
5.4 Is bone density useful to planning tool?
5.5 What are the benefits and drawbacks of each type of system?
5.6 What are the limitations of CAIS?
5.6.1 Acceptable reliability, occasional deviations
5.6.2 A need to combine different systems
5.6.3 Lack of information on soft tissue
5.7 Computer-oriented surgery: a new dynamic concept