Mandibular retrognathism, derived from the Latin word retro, meaning “backwards" and the Greek word, gnathos, meaning “jaw”, is a facial deformity which is described as the presence of an anteroposterior discrepancy between the mandible and the maxilla. Both jawbones are misaligned.
In cases of mandibular retrognathism, the mandible is underdeveloped in relation to the maxilla. In dental terminology, mandibular retrognathism is also called class II.
The disharmony between both structures gives the patient’s facial features an inharmonious appearance, which is especially noticeable in profile, and there is a lack of forward projection. Furthermore, the impact of mandibular retrognathism is not only aesthetic: for example, many patients who have this type of malformation suffer from Sleep Apnoea, a condition that negatively affects their quality of life.