Loss of alveolar bone may be attributed to a variety of factors, such as endodontic pathology, periodontitis, facial trauma, and aggresive maneuvers during extraction. The consequence is usually the loss of the ridge contours, leading to esthetic problems or impairing ideal implant placement.
It is possible to minimize such problems by performing ridge preservation procedures in extraction sockets using grafting materials with or without barrier membranes. According to the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP), an alveolus is the socket in the bone into which a tooth is attached by means of the periodontal ligament. Therefore the terms alveolus or socket can be used indistinctly.
This chapter will review the current scientific literature on socket preservation and will try to define the best technique. In order to do so, the following topics will be addressed:
3.2 Ridge preservation topics
3.2.1 Is there a significant difference between performing ridge preservation and the healing of the socket by clot alone?
3.2.2 Which grafting material can be used?
3.2.3 Is bone formed in preserved sockets?
3.2.4 Does the type, position, or reason for extraction of the tooth affect ridge preservation?
3.2.5 Does ridge preservation affect the success rate of implants?
3.3 Socket preservation materials
3.3.1 What are the available bone substitutes?
3.3.2 Should a membrane be placed after an extraction?
3.3.3 Is it necessary to achieve primary wound closure to cover the membranes and biomaterials?
3.3.4 Complications encountered while dealing with biomaterials in socket preservation
3.4 Socket preservation techniques
3.4.1 Bartee’s technique
3.4.2 Peñarrocha’s technique
3.4.3 Elian’s technique
3.4.4 Hernández Alfaro’s technique